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Real-world examples of land use decision making and action in diverse geographic areas across urban, rural, and peri-urban contexts.

Amsterdam (NL)

The Amsterdam Metropolitan area is comprised of 32 municipalities and two provinces (North Holland and Flevoland). Approximately 2.5 million people live in the area, making up more than 14 percent of the population of the Netherlands. With high level infrastructure, strong economic standing, and a rich cultural history, the area aims to develop in such a way that fosters urban greening and sustainability, while maintaining quality of life for its inhabitants.
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Nitra City (SK)

Nitra is a city located in western Slovakia in the Danubian Lowland (valley of the river Nitra) and at the foot of the Tribeč mountains, with a population of around 100,000. Nitra is known as one of the oldest cities in the country, with evidence of human habitation dating back to the Neolithic era. It has also been a political and economic centre of the region since the 9th century. Modern-day Nitra strikes a balance between preserving its historical legacy and natural environment and embracing contemporary development.
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Flanders (BE)

Flanders is a primarily Dutch-speaking province in northern Belgium. With a population of 6.5 million and a total area of 13,500 km2, the region accounts for 57% of the country’s total population and 45% of Belgium’s territory, making it one of the most densely populated regions in Europe. It is a region of economic significance and is home to a mix of urban centres, picturesque towns, and scenic countryside.
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Kaigu peatland (LV)

Kaigu peatland is a natural territory located in the central part of Latvia. In the peatland, diverse land use practices co-exist in a complementary manner: industrial peat extraction, recultivation of peatland, nature and biodiversity conservation, and recreational activities.
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Parc Ela (CH)

Parc Ela is Switzerland's largest natural park, boasting stunning alpine landscapes, diverse flora, and fauna. It offers a haven for outdoor enthusiasts, with hiking trails, wildlife viewing, and pristine lakes, combined with cultural heritage sites and traditional mountain villages.
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Lucca (IT)

The Province of Lucca, located in the Tuscany region of northwestern Italy, boarders the Ligurian Sea and hosts a sprawling, mountainous landscape and multiple medieval towns. With a population of 387,876, it is a mostly rural province, consisting of 33 communes.
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Green Karst (SL)

The Green Karst region boasts a rural and well-preserved natural landscape, with 73% covered by woods and 54% designated as a Natura 2000 area. It covers 1456 km2 and has a population of 53,092. The landscape is made up of karst stone formations and numerous bodies of water, as well as forests and meadows. It has a high level of biodiversity, hosting all three European large carnivores and a UNESCO site consisting of primeval beech forests. Notably, the region has three remarkable caves—Postojna, with a cave train takes that takes visitors underground, Križna, containing subterranean lakes, and Planina, which is famous for Europe's largest confluence of subterranean rivers.
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Three Countries Park (DE, BE, NL)

The Three Countries Park is a landscape area and partnership located at the intersection of Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The lead partner, Euregio Meuse-Rhine (EMR), is the cross-border cooperation organization (European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation) that aims to enhance sustainable regional development, quality of life, and cultural exchange among these neighbouring regions. Within the territory of the EMR (covering about 11.000 km2 with a population of nearly 4 million), the Three Countries Park area constitutes the peri-urban heart hosting about 2.4 million of its inhabitants. Several cities like Liège (BE), Aachen (DE), and Maastricht (NL) are embedded in a beautiful hilly hedge landscape stretching over 3500 km2 across the borders.
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South Moravia (CZ)

South Moravia, Czechia, is a region situated in the southeastern part of the country and is characterized by its rolling hills, wine production, and the meandering Morava River. With a total of 7 districts and nearly 700 municipalities, approximately 1.3 million people live in the region.
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Surrey (UK)

Surrey is a county located in the southeastern part of England, United Kingdom. It is known for its green spaces and a mix of urban and countryside living. It contains 1.2 million people and covers an area of 1663 km2.
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Île-de-France Region (FR)

Île-de-France is a region in France, centred around Paris. The region covers an area of more than 12000km2 and has a population of 12.3 million. It is made up of 75% natural areas and 25% urban areas, spread in a heterogeneous way over its territory, which is at once urban, peri-urban and rural. It serves as the economic, political, and cultural heart of France, attracting millions of tourists each year. The region is renowned for its iconic landmarks, world-class museums, and vibrant arts scene.
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Mazovia Region (PL)

Mazovia is a province in Poland with the metropolitan area of Warsaw at its centre. The region is home to 5.5 million residents in an area of 36 thousand km2. Mazovia is a region of beautiful river valleys, the dynamic capital city and 5 subregional cities, as well as fields and orchards. In the last two decades it has been one of the most rapidly developing regions in the EU.
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